In her book "Backward in High Heels: Past Present and Future of Women Working in Film," author Alicia Malone suggests that as film evolved from a curiosity into a storytelling medium, the studios identified middle-class women as an ideal target audience and hired female writers and directors.
The same success that led to the creation of a flourishing film industry ultimately pushed women out, as studios consolidated from hundreds of smaller production companies to a handful of monolithic studios helmed by male moguls during the early years of sound.
“From 1930 onward, Hollywood became a boys’ club,” Malone writes. “Women have been trying to make their way back into the industry for almost 100 years.”
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